Study on social integration of land-lost farmers in suburban area
Abstract: Under the background of the rapid development of economy and the continuous advancement of Urbanization, the size of the city has been expanding, and it also means that more agricultural land is used for urban construction and industrial production. So a large number of farmers have to give their land to live in the city, but in fact it’s difficult for them to adapt . This article analysis the status of urban integration of land-lost farmers from the perspectives of economic, social and psychological, and arise some improving schemes according to the real condition.
Key words: suburban area; Land-lost farmers; social integration; civilization
1 Problem Introduction
Urbanization is the inevitable result of industrialization development，is an important symbol of human society progress, and also is the only way to achieve modernization in our country. So accelerate the process of industrialization is the objective requirements of economic and social development. Since the reform and opening up, urbanization process of our country has been accelerated which Promoted the growth of urban population and the expansion of urban land, urban space is also expanding rapidly to the countryside. A large number of agricultural land are constantly being recruited as construction land ,so a new group has been produced – land-lost farmers. For thousands of years, farmers and land is closely related. Farmers lost their land which depend on for existence, and out of the original agricultural production. They already one foot stepped into the threshold of the city, but they can not adapt to the urban environment in the aspect of lifestyle, habits, interpersonal communication and psychological factors, identity, etc. Such a large scale of land-lost farmers whether or not integrate into the urban life, to complete the process of urbanization. This not only affects their personal and family life, also affect the stability of urbanization process in china.
2 social integration analysis of land-lost farmers in suburban area
2.1 Economic integration
Tian Kai has pointed out that there must have three conditions if farmers really want to live in the city: First, find a relatively stable job in the city; second，Economic income and its accompanying social status are in the middle of the local level, so that they have the conditions interact and participate in the local life. Finally, due to the impact of this lifestyle and the contraction with the social, he may accept a new value that same with the locals.
2.1.1 To achieve a non-agricultural occupation
The process of land-lost farmers give up their land, translate into the non-agricultural occupation is the inevitable choice of integrating the city. Through the survey we can found that the employment status of farmers has changed significantly. Before the land lost, Farming is the main work type of farmers, accounting for 61%;After the land lost, going out for work and business has become the main type of work, accounting for 55% and 34% respectively. From the work industry, With the exclusion of the farming industry, Therefore, in general, before and after the land lost farmers' work industry showed a trend of diversification. The survey shows that the land-lost farmers have been basically achieved engaged the job which require low cultural quality and labor skills in the second and third industry.The proportion of person that engaged in catering, construction and manufacturing has greatly increased.so in essence, the land-lost farmers has achieved non-agricultural occupation .
2.1.2 The revenues and expenses of land-lost have both improved, and the income gap widening
Because of the change of employment modes, landless peasants income have a small increase.But at the ame time, the cost of land-lost has increased significantly. Before the land lost,the food consumption of the general family are largely self-sufficient; Ater the land lost,the social life style of the city has broken the low consumption of the traditional rural subsistence. After entering the community, the suburban landless farmers need to buy from the market,So they naturally feel a sharp increase in the cost of consumption,Some elderly land-lost farmers,Even with the wishes of labor, could not find a suitable job.Coupled with the rising prices,while wages and subsidies have not risen in the same range.It have caused some land-lost family face the contradiction between less increasing income and more increasing spending, some families are in a state of poverty. At the same time,through the survey data, we can find that the suburban land-lost farmers' family income tends to be diversified, and the income gap between farmers' income is gradually widening.
2.2 social ingretation
Urban and rural system have different characteristics and different ways of life due to the long-term formation of the two yuan of social structure in china.Land-lost farmers migration from the rural communities to urban communities,they both have taken place great changes in the mode of production, economic conditions, social conditions and culture enviroment.This change has a profound impact on the way of life of landless peasants.From this interview,we found that the land-lost farmers have still kept the previous life style,the scope of its social interaction is mainly based on geography and relative.The interview shows that,faced with the diffrent urban life style,most of the land-lost person are in a difficult transition period to accept the city standard, and gradually move towards the process of adaptation.In this process, they have learned all kinds of rules of urban life, acquired necessary skills.
2.3 Psychological integration
The community adaptation of land-lost farmers must be fully adapted in economic, social, and psychological aspects.Psychological adaptation is the highest level of community adaptation of the land-lost farmers，and it is a sign that the suburban land lost farmers are fully integrated into the city and complete their urbanization.Only after the farmers adapt to the society in the psychological level,Totally agree with the community life and urban society,Achieve citizenship identity,so they can truly complete the transformation of suburban land lost farmers to the public.
2.3.1 The plot of love still exists
For thousands of years,the land bearing the farmers' life and professional security,It provides a habitat for farmers and gives them a stable source of life.The affection of chinese farmers for the land are deep and complex,especially these who take the farming as their lifelong career,the loss of land has make them feel unfortable.According to the observation and understanding of the suburban landless peasants,we can found that many elderly family still retains a lot of tools,Some residents will grow vegetables in the wasteland of no development.Some residents are still plants vegetables in wasteland.Analysis the causes Partly because of savings, and a large part of the people not used to the leisure life. At the same time,we can also found that the person who are dependent on the land has the following characteristics: older age, low income, ow education level.
2.3.2 Growing sense of community belonging
Sense of community belonging refers to the recognition，attachment and other psychological feeling of community residents to the community,and the psychological characteristics that adapt to a higher level, with the relative stability. After the land-lost famers realized concentration living, Original fresh and beautiful rural scenery was replaced by business district and unit building, Original leisure life also began to change for the fast pace of urban life,Original exclusive small single house environment has turned into a community public environment.
According to the survey,most of the land-lost person can’t adapt to the community life when face of the new envirnoment at the beginning,and very nostalgic for the past rural diaspora living. But with the time went on, under the influence of urban life,as well as the progress of life and improvement of the communitycan make them feel the warmth from the community, so the sense of belonging of community is getting stronger.
2.3.3 Public identity is generally relatively low
The identity of landless farmers is the key to promote the integration between land-lost famers and the city,and also is an important factor to promote the urbanization of famers.Althoug the land-lost famers had almost realized the transformation of non-agricultural household registrationtln,their own identity is not as clear as the institutional level.when we ask “you are now not farming,why still think you are a farmer ”,the land-lost farmers have their own reasons.The reasons are summarized as: the treatment gap, income gap, the gap of human and cultural quality, long-term rural life and so on.When people judge themselves, compared with different reference groups will have different feelings.Compared with the second-level groups, it will be easy to produce satisfaction; compared with the high-level group, or produce enterprise, or have a sense of loss or relative deprivation..
Thus,overall,the current socal integration situation of most land-lost peasants in china is not optimistic.These landless peasants can not integrate into the city, while the city border, but in fact live a life of isolation from the city.In form they are also involved in city life,they looking for a job in the city,obtaining income,living and consuming.But in essence,they are living in the "isolated island", and at the edge of the position in culture.The reason is nothing more than two aspects of subjective and objective.Subjectively,the cultural quality of the farmers, the ability to withstand the psychological, environmental strain capacity and personal will and so on will more or less affect the urban adaptation.And from an objective point of view,institutional and policy restrictions, different urban and rural lifestyles,the discrmination from urban residents and so on will seriously hinder the land-lost better adapt to the city really integrate into.
3 Suggestions on the promotion of urban integration of land lost farmers
In the process of urbanization,To promote the community adaptation of landless farmers and promote the process of urbanization, it should be a positive interaction and coordination process of government, community and individuals, and the process of co-construction.
3.1 Government level
The direct cause of land lost is the introduction and implementation of government land acquisition policy,the government should be responsible for solving the difficulties faced by the farmers after losing their land.The government should not only provide a strong policy support and social security system, but also create an external environment conducive to the farmers.
3.1.1 provide the equivalent public service as urban residents for land lost famers
Equivalent public service is an important embodiment of identity equality the land lost farmers and citizens,they both should enjoy the same treatment in terms of housing, employment, social security, compulsory education, health care, transportation and communication, life and so on, to enjoy the achievements of modernization and urbanization. order to better enable landless peasants engaged in the production, life, development, communication and other activities,the government should respect the public service rights of farmers.To provide a good basic education services, advanced medical and health services, perfect transportation and communication facilities, adequate urban green space and so on for the suburban community.The equivalent public service can satisfy the basic needs of the new type of community residents, and further improve their living standards and quality of life.
3.1.2 Properly solve the problem of employment placement, increase the support to landless farmers
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory,Only a low level of need is relatively satisfied, will be to a higher level of development,only if the land lost peasants' lives are settled down, can they make them to the public identity.There is a saying that in chinaGive a man a fish and you will feed him for a day. Teach him how to fish and you will feed him for a lifetime.Properly solve the problem of employment placement, can provide a solid economic foundation for the land lost farmers.Employment is the foundation of the people's livelihood,the government should effectively solve the employment and resettlement of landless peasants, and lay the material foundation for their successful integration into the community life.At present, the career access of land lost farmers is single, mostly rely on their themselves.In order to change this situation, it is necessary to establish the system of employment under the leadership of the government, and provide a good institutional environment for them to obtain employment.The government should carry out the employment guidance and training services purposefully for the land lost person to improve their employment.adapting tax incentives andother policies to attact corporate giving preference to landless peasants suburbs.In addition,the government can through the intervention of state power or public resources input provide all aspects of support for the land lost farmers,such as policy credit, science and technology promotion service, business consulting services, and standardized and Legalized guidance.
3.2 community level
The daily life of the suburban land lost farmers is mainly in the community, and it has become the feild of community adaptation and urbanization.Therefore, the support from the community level should not be underestimated.
3.2.1 Improve the quality of land lost farmers by means of Community Education
Community education is the product of social development and the changing times,only develop the community education actively and take it into the social system,we can fully meet the needs of all kinds of personnel training of modernization.t is one of the necessary work to promote integration of landless person.
3.3 The individual level
The suburban land lost farmers have lost their land because of the passive urbanization.But community adaptation and urbanization of land lost famers is the irresistible historical trend,they have to change "passive" to "active"to accomplish the task of modernization.
3.3.1 Improve their own quality and ability,accumulate human capita,expand social capital
There are three ways to improve the quality of the land lost farmers in the suburbs,thatISself-study, education and vocational training.Learning is a necessary way for people to be socialized, and it plays an important role in the process of career acquisition and promotion.Landless peasants in the suburbs after the arrival of new communities, to look beyond willing to invest time and money in human capital.The landless farmers through the investment of human capital to improve their labor skills,such as learning driving, flower cultivation technology and so on,Strive to obtain a dominant position in the career process.At work, landless peasants not only to the good brain,proactive,and constantly improve the overall quality and ability, but also to seize a variety of professional training opportunities, and strive to improve the quality of personal and technical level, to obtain a greater space for career.
Bourdieu believes that”social capital is not the nature link that set up by relatives and blood relationship,but exsit in a particular relationship, group and organizational relationships .Social network must be constructed through an investment strategy, the main purpose is to establish a stable relationship, so that it becomes a reliable resource, otherwise it is a casual contact”. land-lost farmers cannot be conditioned by the barrier of self-enclose in social life,they should throw the close conservative, low self-esteem and cautious ideas,should take the initiative to expand the scope of social communication, and widely make friends from all walks of life, and actively participate in the activities of the community or work unit.The vast interpersonal relationship is helpful to the transformation of the social capital to the modern type, which is helpful to the development of individuals and families in the city, and it is more conducive to the acceleration of the process of urbanization.
3.3.2Actively change the concept of thinking, learn to self adjustment
First of all,the suburban landless farmers should update the concept actively and correct the role positioning.Suburban farmers should be to have a clear understanding of the present and future, and adapt to the non-agricultural profession ,community life and culture, the role of citizens of the city actively,efforts to overcome the closed, introverted, undisciplined,other negative ideological and psychological impact in the local culture.farmers should cultivate competitive consciousness of market economy, try to do some investment , so as to improve the level of household income. In daily life,improve the quality of health civilization, the awareness of the behavior of urban civilization,and so on..
Generally speaking,Landless farmers must strive to change the previous cognitive attitude, good at solving all kinds of psychological pressure, and actively accept new things, new perspectives, with a positive attitude to accept the challenge and competition in the process of urbanization.
XU Xiaojun. Analysis on the rights and interests guarantee of the land lost farmers in the suburban areas[J]. Rural Economy,2005(8) (in chinese)
REN Yuan, QIAO Nan. The process, measurement and influencing factors of social integration of urban floating population[J]. population research, 2010，（2）(in chinese)
ZHU Li. On the urban adaptation of peasant workers' social stratum[J]. Jianghai Academic Journal，2002,(6) (in chinese)
 Sun Birong. On urban integration of land lost farmers[J]. Modern economic information，2015，（8）(in chinese)
 Yue zhongshan, Li Shuzhuo, Feldman. Research on social integration of migrant workers: Present situation, influence factors and the consequences[M].beijing: Social sciences academic press，2012，67 (in chinese)
ZHAO Shuang. The Institutional Obstacles and Approaches of land-lost farmers’ urbanization[J] . Academic Journal of Zhongzhou,2007(3) (in chinese)
 Zhang Haibo, TONG Xing. The social adaptation of land-lost farmers in the process of urbanization in China. [J] . Sociological Research, 2006,(1) (in chinese)
HU Xiaoli（School of public administration, Southwest jiaotong university）